Cigarette smoking is a common problem in our country as well as around the world. Since lung cancer is the most common cancer, the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer is often highlighted. However, there are many other cancers and diseases associated with cigarette smoking, the most notable of which is the urinary bladder, bladder. Bladder cancer is quite common in our society, and according to current data, it is the 6th most common cancer in our country and the 10th among cancer-related deaths.
Although the relationship between these two common cancers, which arise due to the consumption of cigarettes, is known, there has not been a study in our country in which these two cancers have been evaluated jointly. A study was carried out using data from the Bladder Tumor Database, which was established by the Turkish Urooncology Association and developed with the contribution of the leading centers of our country on urological cancers .
In this study; The relationship between smoking and the development of bladder cancer in our country, the characteristics of bladder cancer in smokers in the diagnostic and treatment processes, and perhaps most importantly, its relationship with the development of lung cancer have been examined on a scientific basis. This study is also the first to assess the association between smoking and bladder and lung cancers in light of data from our country. The Turkish Urooncology Association and the Turkish Lung Cancer Association came together for this study, which was carried out with data obtained from 2,568 patients. The results of the study were shared with the public at the press conference held as part of World No Tobacco Day on May 31. The results of this in-depth study are as follows:
THE EFFECT OF TOBACCO CONSUMPTION ON BLADDER AND LUNG CANCER
In accordance with the results obtained from the Bladder Cancer Database, the effect of smoking on the simultaneous formation of bladder and lung cancers was determined. In the study, the information of 2,568 patients registered in the Bladder Cancer Database of the Turkish Urooncology Association was evaluated.
2.1% of patients with bladder cancer also had lung cancer, 9.9% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 0.5% had both lung cancer and COPD . 50.3% of bladder cancer patients and 81.2% of bladder and lung cancer patients smoked. Both types of cancer were diagnosed at an earlier age in smokers than in non-smokers. The incidence of lung cancer in patients with bladder cancer is higher than in healthy people. The risk of developing lung cancer increases even more in those who have bladder cancer and who smoke. It was observed that lung cancer developed after an average of 3.7 years in patients with bladder cancer, and bladder cancer developed after an average of 4.2 years in patients with lung cancer. In addition, quitting smoking early does not reduce the risk of developing both bladder and lung cancer. Bladder cancer is seen at an earlier age in smokers, and smokers are diagnosed at a higher stage and grade. Patients who smoke are more likely to undergo surgery for bladder cancer, which requires the complete removal of their bladder, and the risk of developing postoperative complications increases in these patients. Again, the risk of disease recurrence, the risk of disease progression, the risk of spreading the disease to other organs, and the risk of death are higher in the follow-up of these patients. Bladder cancer is more advanced and deadlier in those who have both bladder and lung cancer and continue to smoke.
“TURKEY RANKS 9 IN THE WORLD FOR FREQUENCY OF LUNG CANCER”
Stating that 20 million people smoke in our country in 2021, the highest rate is in the age group of 35 to 44 years, and the smoking rate among men is 53% and among women is 24 %2, the Chairman of the Board of the Turkish Lung Cancer Association, Prof. Dr. Atila Akkoçlu shared the following information about lung cancer: “Lung cancer cases in Turkey are seen at the rate of 74.8 per hundred thousand in males and 10 per hundred thousand in females. Lung cancer ranks first among men and fourth among women in the frequency of newly diagnosed cancers in one year. The average age of lung cancer, which is seen in about 41,000 new patients every year, is 60 years old. 90% of patients smoke and 90% of smokers are men. Unfortunately, 70% of patients consult a doctor at an advanced stage. However, according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 2 million people (11.6% of all cancers) are diagnosed with lung cancer in 2018 as of 2018. lung ranks first among cancer-related deaths in terms of death frequency, with 22% among men, and second among women after breast cancer with 13.8%. While Turkey ranks ninth in the world for lung cancer incidence with 36.9 percent thousand, it ranks third in the world with 74.8 percent thousand for men, after Hungary and Serbia .1 Lung cancer does not wait. For this reason, it is very important for smokers to pay more attention to this disease and make the necessary examinations in time.
“TOBACCO USE INCREASES THE RISK OF DEVELOPING BLADDER CANCER BY 3 TO 4 TIMES”
Stating that tobacco use is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer and increases the risk of developing bladder cancer by 3 to 4 times, the chairman of the board of directors of the Turkish Association of urooncology, Professor. Dr. Güven Aslan said: “This risk is directly related to the duration of tobacco use and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. It has also been found that the risk of developing bladder cancer is higher in current smokers and former smokers than in those who have never smoked. said. Aslan continued his assessment saying, “50-65% of newly diagnosed bladder cancer cases in men and 20-30% in women are related to smoking. Bladder cancer deaths are second only to lung cancer in smoking-related cancer deaths. Those who start smoking at an earlier age have a higher risk of death from bladder cancer. The fact that patients with bladder cancer are diagnosed at a later age suggests that there is a 30-year lag between the onset of smoking and the diagnosis of bladder cancer. However, a sudden decrease in the risk of bladder cancer is observed in those who quit smoking. This decrease is 40% after 1 to 4 years of quitting smoking and 60% after 25 years. Since tobacco smoke contains carcinogens such as beta-naphthylamine and aromatic hydrocarbons, these particles cause inflammation of the bladder and other parts of the bladder. body, carcinogenic and It stimulates the development of cancer by causing mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Therefore, encouraging people to quit smoking will reduce the incidence of bladder cancer in both men and women. Low-tar cigarettes also do not protect against bladder cancer. The same effect applies to electronic cigarettes. It has been observed that there is an increase in carcinogens in the urine of people who use electronic cigarettes.